Only they could help Charles raise the necessary money for a war. Parliament wasted no time arresting and putting on trial the Kings closest advisers, including Archbishop Laud and Lord Strafford. The English Civil War was a highly complex conflict, one which cannot be pinned on one cause alone. Were the festering wounds left by the Tudor religious roller coaster to blame? However, less is known but much is debated about the causes since they did King Charles I ruled without summoning parliament for 11 years by acquiring funds through “loans” from wealthy subjects and … Causes of The English Civil War In this assessment I will be analysing the many causes and roots of the English Civil war which broke out in 1642. These two points demonstrate the fact that Charles believed in his Divine Right, a right to rule unchallenged. Banner image by David Muscroft / Shutterstock.com, On 30th January 1649, King Charles I was beheaded outside Banqueting House in Whitehall…, The Battle of Edgehill on October 23rd 1642 was the first battle of the English Civil War – and is reputed to be contested again and again by ghostly armies at the battle site…. It caused many deaths and divided some families. The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of England's governance and issues of religious freedom. Terms of Use  |   The English Civil War has many causes but the personality of Charles I must be counted as one of the major reasons. Few people could have predicted that the civil war, that started in 1642, would have ended with the public execution of Charles. His bullish response in barging into the House of Commons and attempting to arrest five MPs lost him the last remnants of support among undecided MPs. From 1637 to 1642, each of Charles’ kingdoms plunged into civil war, beginning in Scotland from 1637, engulfing Ireland from 1641, and finally England the following year. The Long-Term Causes of the English Civil War • Believed in the divine right of kings – i.e. To prosecute those who opposed his reforms, Laud used the two most powerful courts in the land, the Court of High Commission and the Court of Star Chamber. The basic causes of the English Civil War were lack of money, religion, foreign affairs and the struggle between the monarchy and Parliament, according to the BBC. Daniël Mijtens, Charles I, 1625; Long term causes: Under Charles I’s father James I the role of monarchy had begun to decline. What led to the outbreak of the bloodiest conflict in the history of North America? Possible, culminating in an interest in the causes of the tide of english society, hunger, famine, religion, 1629–42. It was to be used to strengthen the Navy and so these counties would be protected by the money they paid in tax; in theory, it was a fair tax against which they could not argue. And yet in 1642 we went to war with ourselves. Fully revised and updated, this second edition of the standard textbook on the causes of the English Civil War provides a comprehensive guide to the historiographical debates surrounding this crucial period of English history. These issues were exacerbated by Charles’s mismanagement of the public coffers and through introducing new and ‘unfair’ taxes he simply added to the already growing anti-Crown sentiment up and down the country. We English like to think of ourselves as gentlemen and ladies; a nation that knows how to queue, eat properly and converse politely. One hundred years earlier, all of England had been Catholic. Indeed, several things contributed to the animosity between Parliament and the monarchy, which erupted into armed conflict in 1642. Charles became King in 1625. How many other MPs were not safe? This stabilization of the religious roller coaster calmed the fears of many in Tudor times who believed if a civil war was to be fought in England it would be fought along religious lines. Nicknames. His introduction of a permanent Ship Tax was the most offensive policy to many. Causes of The English Civil War In this assessment I will be analysing the many causes and roots of the English Civil war which broke out in 1642. In times of financial difficulty that meant the King had to listen to Parliament. The demands of Parliament were inimical to Charles, who believed strongly in the divine right of kings. The Civil War erupted from a variety of long-standing … Another tactic Charles used was to make the country pay what is known as Ship Money. Although the marriage never actually went ahead, the damage it had done had still not healed by the times of James’s death in 1625. The war stemmed from a long-standing weakness of the monarch and Charles I’s attempt to strengthen the figure head of a nation. He believed in the ‘Divine Right’ of being the King. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Public demands for a Parliament were growing and Charles realised that whatever his next step was to be, it would require a financial backbone. That is not to say it was inevitable, or that the subsequent removal and execution of Charles I was even a notion in the heads of those who opposed him. This was a tax traditionally paid by coastal towns and villages during wartime to help pay for the upkeep of the navy. Coupled with his desire to extend his high Anglican (read here thinly disguised Catholic) policies and practices to Scotland, Charles I needed the financial support of Parliament. The English Civil War from 1642 to 1651 was a period of social belligerence, religious disputes, political experimentation and instability in England, Scotland and Ireland. This support did not just come from the general tax paying population but also from the Puritanical forces within Protestant England. Timeline of Causes of the English Civil War. Through the study of money, religion and power at this time it is clear that one factor is woven through them all and must be noted as a major cause of the English Civil War; that is the attitude and ineptitude of Charles I himself, perhaps the antithesis of an infallible monarch. The concept of a God given right to rule was not born in this period however; writings as far back as AD 600 infer that the English in their varied Anglo-Saxon states accepted those in power had God’s blessing. It was part of a Europe wide conflict between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. The sides were crystallized and the battle lines were drawn. They were a collection of aristocrats who met at the King’s pleasure to offer advice and to help him collect taxes. But in 1635 Charles decided that everyone should pay because they all benefitted from the navy’s protection. However, the balance of power had begun to shift. Charles realised that his relationship with Parliament was now irrevocably broken. We therefore needed short-term rather than long-term explanations of the English civil war; revolution, they claimed, was the result, not the cause, of civil war.eRevisionists suggested that a much greater degree of ideological consensus existed in early Stuart He asserted his political legitimacy by decreeing that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority; not the will of his people, the aristocracy or any other estate of the realm, including Parliament. The English civil war was a long chain of conflict and rivalry, which was set between two very powerful forces, who consisted of The Royalists (King Charles I, and his supporters), and the Roundheads (Parliament, and their supporters). Civil war was now on its way. The re-introduction of stained glass windows and finery within churches was the last straw for many Puritans and Calvinists. Parliament had no tangible power at this point in English history. Between the years 1625 and 1629, Charles and Parliament clashed over money and religion. the english civil war. Religion was a major cause of the English Civil War. Causes of the English Civil War. James was often labelled as the "wisest fool in Christendom". English Protestants were constantly fearful of Catholicism being foisted upon the English, whether through foreign invasion or internal rebellion. Consequently, James suspended Parliament in 1911 and it would not meet for another 10 years. For the Royalists, the nickname is fairly simple in origin. Causes of the Civil War Essay: The infamous American civil war was fought between the years 1861 to 1865, between the more developed North American states and the lesser developed South American states. By continuing to browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Charles I raised his standard on 22nd August 1642 in Nottingham: the Civil War had begun. He would become the first English monarch to be tried and sentenced to death since the monarchy’s establishment, largely due to his causing of the English Civil War. The southern states were in favour of expanding the scope of slavery, while the northern states fought against it. They were locked out for 11 years: this period was named the Personal Rule, or the Eleven Years Tyranny. The English Civil War fought between Parliamentarians and Royalists between 1642 and 1651 which consisted of a succession of armed discordances and political intrigues1. However, the scars of the Reformation were still present beneath the surface and Charles did little to avert public fears about his intentions for the religious future of England. The English civil war broke out on 22nd August 1642. The year 2011 marked the 350th anniversary of the execution of Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England - two and half years AFTER his death.. James was often labelled as the "wisest fool in Christendom". By 1642, relations between Parliament and Charles had further deteriorated. This sparked outrage in Parliament as they feared that Charles’s children would be raised as Catholics. Slavery – not happy the royalist cause, so as well as a war. After the conclusion of the humiliating Treaty of Ripon that let the Scots remain in Newcastle and Durham whilst being paid £850 a day for the privilege, Charles summoned Parliament. Ruling without Parliament was not unprecedented but without access to Parliament’s financial pulling power, Charles’s ability to acquire funds was limited. However, Parliament’s great power over James was money - they had it and he needed it. During the early phases of the war, the Parliamentarians expected to retain Charles as king, but with expanded powers for Parliament. Money had also been an issue from the outset, especially as the royal coffers had been emptied during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. James’ son Charles was conceited and strongly believed in the divine right of kings. Above: Parliament in the time of King Charles I. Charles’s personal rule reads like a ‘how to annoy your countrymen for dummies’. While outwardly a Protestant, Charles I was married to a staunch Catholic, Henrietta Maria of France. This made many MPs angry. Indeed, there was barely an English ‘gentleman’ who was not touched by the war. In May 1641 Charles conceded an unprecedented act, which forbade the dissolution of the English Parliament without Parliament’s consent. The resultant backlash and popular opposition however proved that there was growing support for a check on the power of the King. Copyright © Historic UK Ltd. Company Registered in England No. Therefore, arguing or disagreeing with the King/Queen was seen as a disagreement with God’s servant. However, Charles I had now shown his true side. The English Civil War and Puritanism - Duration: 28:29. • Charles took the result of Hampden (Ship Money) Case as evidence that he was right in what he was doing. Privacy Policy, However, Parliament’s great power over James was money - they had it and he needed it. The two sides in the English Civil war had been established. John Hampden, a powerful MP, famously refused to pay the new tax because Parliament had not agreed to it. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Was it simply a power struggle between king and Parliament? The English Civil War/Causes. Why had England become so chaotic? From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... To understand why Civil War erupted in England following decades of strong and powerful rule by the monarchy and why the "Supreme Head" of the land, the king himself was executed, we need to delve in to some background history first. The following eleven years, during which Charles ruled England without a Parliament, are referred to as the ‘personal rule’. "The Causes of the English Civil War". Next, the king, Charles I, was found guilty of treason and executed in January 1649. This essay will discuss and deal with the different factors that gave rise to the English Civil War.As was said above, one of the main problems of Charles’ reign was the lack of money and, undoubtedly, this was a good reason for a civil war. This happened at a time when all of Europe was deciding (and fighting) between Catholicism and Protestantism, and neither side liked the other very mu… Understandably enough, in seeking the causes of the English civil war most historians have focussed on England and Wales, but the wider context has never been entirely ignored. 2015. Firstly, England, and specifically Parliament, exhibited a rabid paranoia concerning Catholicism in the 17th century. Start studying Causes of the English Civil War LIVE. However, King Henry VIII had a lot of disagreements with the Catholic Church and decided he would split off to make his own church, the Anglican Church, creating a schism, or great divide. that his power came from God, so he was answerable only to God. The courts became feared for their censorship of opposing religious views and were unpopular among the propertied classes for inflicting degrading punishments on gentlemen. About us  |   But Charles did not only clash with Parliament; his relationship with the Scots was also turbulent, particularly when he ordered that a new prayer book should be used within their church services, which in turn prompted the angry to Scots to invade England in 1639. He rode north to lead the battle himself, suffering a crushing defeat that left Newcastle upon Tyne and Durham occupied by Scottish forces. civil war England Europe history . Through the study of money, religion and power at this time it is clear that one factor is woven through them all and must be noted as a major cause of the English Civil War; that is the attitude and ineptitude of Charles I himself, perhaps the antithesis of an infallible monarch. 5621230. A full list of the Kings and Queens of England and Britain, with portraits and photos. First, civil war erupted and the country divided into opposing Royalist and Parliamentarian factions. A quick but dense overview of what led up to the English Civil War(s) beginning in 1642. The war began as a result of a conflict over the power of the monarchy and the rights of Parliament. MPs represented the people, and yet here was Charles attempting to arrest five MPs simply for daring to criticise him. Start studying The Causes of the English Civil War. Thus emboldened, Parliament now abolished Ship Tax and the courts of The Star Chamber and The High Commission. Charles’s continued support for these types of policies continued to pile on support for those that were looking to put a limit on his power. Fought between 1642–1651, the English Civil War saw King Charles I (1600–1649) battle Parliament for control of the English government. In 1642, Charles arrived in Westminster with 300 soldiers and attempted to arrest five of his most virulent critics. By October 1640, Charles’ unpopular religious policies and attempts to extend his power north had resulted in a war with the Scots. 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