I don't think simply casting it to long will do the trick. "long" has almost always been 32bits. Example Unsigned Long velocity = 101006 ;// declaration of variable with type Unsigned Long and initialize it with 101006 Some architecture use 64 bits for long type..LP64 convention use 64 bits for long type. But the size of uint32_t is always 32 bits independent of convention the compiler is following.. Am I wrong? However in C++ int and long are different types, even if they are of the same size. Printing a uint32_t value with "%u" is non-portable. The difference between unsigned ints and (signed) ints, lies in the way the highest bit, sometimes referred to as the "sign" bit, is interpreted. char vs signed char vs unsigned char. On Arduino Uno (and equivalent) you have to explicitly cast the calculation when dealing with uint8_t for this to work. I'm using an unsigned long … The library uses: uint8_t and uint16_t Until now I am only used of using the int and unsigned int (data types as described in the arduino … So the only way to allow libraries to be portable between ESP32 Arduino core and other cores is to use unsigned long for the return value. // frequency is a double int32_t freq = frequency * 4294967296 / 180.0e6; That calculation is going to be done using floating point arithmetic. Which means that your fancy magic number on the right hand side is going to be truncated to about 6 decimal digits of precision anyway. That's a good question. and NEVER use the Arduino type “word” as that is defined to be “unsigned short” which is 16 bits on AVR and 32 bits on ARM and pic32. Because it could be really helpul! So it COMMON for char to be 8bits, int to be either 16 or 32, and long to 32. The exact same bits, just considered as a 2's-complement integer instead of as an unsigned integer. You may use long type also for inet_addr() function since most of the architecture use 32 bits(4 bytes) for long type but it is not always applicable . Hello, I am trying to modify a library at the moment. (Less plausibly, it could be unsigned char or unsigned short on an unusual system, or it could be an extended integer type; it cannot be unsigned long long, which is at least 64 bits wide.) You are likely wondering what are uint8_t, uint16_t, uint32_t and uint64_t. Unsigned long variables are extended size variables for number storage and store 32 bits (4 bytes). In the Arduino int type (which is signed), if the high bit is a "1", the number is interpreted as a negative number, and the other 15 bits are interpreted with (2’s complement math). int infrared1 = A0; int infrared2 = A1; #define button 9 int color,number,number1,number2; unsigned long firstMillis1; unsigned long firstMillis2; unsigned long secondMillis1; Unlike standard longs, unsigned longs will not store negative numbers, making their range from 0 to 4,294,967,295 (2^32 - 1). The “word” type is a total fail. It turns out that they are equal respectively to: unsigned char, unsigned short, unsigned int and unsigned long long. I would discourage using the “cutsie” Arduino types like byte. "double" is also a different size on ARM vs AVR. Modern programmers should use the standardized explicit-size types instead: uin8_t, int16_t, uint32_t, etc. It could plausibly be either unsigned int or unsigned long int. uint16_t and uint32_t (the same as unsigned long on But what are ranges of all these types? As @erenfro correctly noted, this isn't a bit width issue, as both int and long are 32 bit on Xtensa. I want to reinterpret the 32 bits of an unsigned long as a signed long. Or perhaps there's a better way. It's 64bits on ARM, and only 32 (the same as "float") on AVR. If you don’t, the result of the subtraction will become negative if given the right input. Int or unsigned long int on Arduino Uno ( and equivalent ) you have to explicitly cast the calculation dealing. Unsigned long int to long will do the trick.. LP64 convention use bits... Long type the right input for char to be either unsigned int or unsigned long long long.... 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