His first poem was the Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College. Wilfred Owen was the greatest of the war poets. Following the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, the English Restoration period (from 1660-1689) saw the rise of literary elites, such as John Dryden. thank u so much sir ,this post is going so helpful for me in my upcoming net exam….thankx once again, Thank you so much Infinite thanks to you for this exhaustive and simplified presentation of the history of English literature. His finest lyric is The Tiger. The imaginary character of Sir Roger de Coverley was very popular during the eighteenth century. MA English Literature Notes 165; MA Islamiat Notes 6; Test Preparation Notes & Guide 328. His chief works are The Voyage of the Beagle, Origin of Species, and The Descent of Man. In Spain and Portugal these plays, under the name auto, were wonderfully developed by the genius of Calderon and Gil Vicente; but in England the Morality was a dreary kind of performance, like the allegorical poetry which preceded it. Thanks for this contribution. He worked as a news reporter in Lahore. They were given first very simply and impressively in the churches; then, as the actors increased in number and the plays in liveliness, they overflowed to the churchyards; but when fun and hilarity began to predominate even in the most sacred representations, the scandalized priests forbade plays altogether on church grounds. A Passage to India is unequal in English in its presentation of the complex problems which were to be found in the relationship between English and native people in India. He drew upon the human body, sex, and the Old Testament for much of his imagery and complex word-play. Dryden appeared as the chief literary champion of the monarchy in his famous satirical allegory, Abasalom and Achitophel. Other well-known Moralities are the “Pride of Life,” “Hyckescorner,” and “Castell of Perseverance.” In the latter, man is represented as shut up in a castle garrisoned by the virtues and besieged by the vices. x�b```b``a`�� ��ea���d�̱T�G�f�=\�;wΚU�Rݠ�I$��S��U�sKf84�-�sh�B�\O�l�+�R��d� Y�.i�Bj @!�%�4�t��@���u �b1�� William Blake (1757-1827) is both a great poet and artist. Woolf rejected the conventional concepts of novel. 7. E.M Forster wrote five novels in his life time. Edward Gibbon is famous for the great historical work, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. He was the son of Thomas Arnold, the famed headmaster of Rugby School. 1st Phase . In addition to her novels, Virginia Woolf wrote a number of essays on cultural subjects. Thomas Hardy’s characters are mostly men and women living close to the soil. Tottel’s Songs and Sonnets (1557) is the first printed anthology of English poetry. Oliver Twist, Nicholas Nickleby , David Copperfield, Hard Times, A Tale of Two Cities and Great Expectations are some of the most famous novels of Charles Dickens. The Interludes originated, undoubtedly, in a sense of humor; and to John Heywood (1497?-1580? Unlike Marlow, Shakespeare is relaxed in the intensity of tragedy. Kubla Khan, Christabel, Dejection an Ode, Frost at Midnight etc. There was no rhyme in Old English poems. 0000012113 00000 n Charlotte, Emily, and Anne were the daughters of an Irish clergy man Patrick Brontë, who held a living in Yorkshire. Milton was a great poet, polemic, pamphleteer, theologian, and parliamentarian. Thomas Dekker, Thomas Middleton, Thomas Heywood, Beaumont and Fletcher etc. His characterization has improved. The Old English language or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest form of English. In 1609, a collection of Shakespeare’s 154 sonnets was printed. This is so helpful for literature student for their any exam in english literature. Social Crisis and the Novel 81. The 20th century English poetry emerged in the early years of the 20 th century through various schools, styles, and influences:. As an introduction to basic literary forms, Introduction to English literature is a preparation for The Rise of the Novel, Appreciating Drama and Appreciating Poetry. In its place emerged what came to be known with characteristic understatement as The Movement. The Domestic Ideal 84. Part of the major Blackwell History of English Literature series. By many, it is considered the best of all his works. It is a story of a brave young man Beowulf in 3182 lines. His greatest novel is Tom Jones. Charles Darwin is one of the greatest names in modern science. Coleridge’s lectures on Shakespeare are equally important. The Prelude is the record of his development as a poet. LYRIC POETS DURING MILTON’S PERIOD (THE CAVALIER POETS). With the collapse of the Puritan Government there sprang up activities that had been so long suppressed. Revolution in France and A Letter to a Noble Lord are his notable pamphlets. Jonson is considered as the father of English literary criticism. H.G Wells began his career as a journalist. His two collections of short lyrics are Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience. His critical essay Apology for Poetry, sonnet collection Astrophel and Stella are elegant. Wesker narrated the lives of working class people in his plays. The movement had significant influence over the English Literature. rank him as one of the greatest prose writers of ninteenth century. These plays stand supreme in intensity of emotion, depth of psychological insight, and power of style. It is considered a great age in literary history, particularly for drama. In Memoriam(1850) caused a great stir when it first appeared. Many of the poems of the period are pagan, in particular Widsith and Beowulf. Like the Miracle plays, most of the old Moralities are of unknown date and origin. Elegies can also mourn the passing of events or passions. Prerequisite: None. These changes took distinct shape in the literature of the 20thcentury. period {6} on the basis of the character of their writings, such as poetry, history, belles−lettres, theology, essays, and the like. Kingsly Amis’s Lucky Jim, Take a Girl like You, One Fat Englishman, and Girl are notable works in the twentieth century. It is the body of written works of a language or period of culture. xref He was a great Puritan and supported Oliver Cromwell in the Civil War. 0000000016 00000 n H�tS�n�0}�W�G[Z��$v�V�(���*U��݃)x@��t����N�/���{|���� no���1p���� �8��X��� �p`^�8��B_�����Ap?�ŕ�@D,K���J�) :Θ�yf��P&Q? There was a sweeping social reform and unprecedented progress. His longest book is Modern Painters. 8 USEFUL INFORMATION TO STUDY LITERATURE Taking Notes 1. John Webster’s The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi are important Elizabethan dramas. Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) is one of the greatest satirists of English literature. Robert Burns is known as the national poet of Scotland. Oliver Goldsmith wrote two popular poems in heroic couplets. His own experience enabled him to study the life of the Dublin slums with the warm understanding. The Elizabethan era was a period marked by developments in English commerce, nationalism, exploration, and maritime power. Brief History of English and American Literature 6. Lyric poetry, prose, and drama were the major styles of literature that flowered during the Elizabethan Age. Rupert Brooke’s famous sonnet “If I should die, think only this of me” has appeared in so many anthologies of twentieth century verse. Many of the poems of the period are pagan, in particular Widsith and Beowulf.The greatest English poem, Beowulf is the first English epic. He published his first novel Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded in 1740. The joy of his marriage with Elizabeth Boyle is expressed in his ode Epithalamion. Robert Herrick wrote some fresh and passionate lyrics. Heywood’s Interludes were written between 1520 and 1540. Home; Books . Besides Essays of Elia, other famous essays are Dream Children and Tales from Shakespeare. The greatest English poem, Beowulf is the first English epic. u are made it said brief about English literature not a whole documentary on it. An energetic and provocative history of English literature from 1603-1690. ENGLIT 0070 CERVANTES IN ENGLISH 3 cr. The plays in this group are Richard II, Henry IV and Henry V. 3. Rupert Brooke, Slegfried Sassoon, and Wilfred Owen are the major War poets. By the beginning of the fourteenth century all these plays were, in various localities, united in single cycles beginning with the Creation and ending with the Final Judgment. period {6} on the basis of the character of their writings, such as poetry, history, belles−lettres, theology, essays, and the like. Jane Austen 1775-1817 is one of the greatest novelists of nineteenth century English literature. Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan, Thomas Fuller’s The History of the Holy War are other important prose works during this period. In this article, we have collected a top 10 of poems written in English, which encompass the long-standing literary tradition of the language. Very extraordinary effort. Two important figures in Old English poetry are Cynewulf and Caedmon. Besides poetry collections like The Lady of the Last Ministrel, Marmion, The Lady of the Lake, and The Lord of the Isles, Sir Walter Scott produced enormous number of novels. R.L. are other important poems. Who wrote the first work of poetry, and is it something that a collector can seek out in an The first English tragedy was Gorboduc, in blank verse. Alfred Lord Tennyson held the poet laureateship for over forty years. Harold Pinter was influenced by Samuel Beckett. He studied Indian philosophy and Vedas. William Congreve is the greatest of Restoration comedy writers. Fra Lippo Lippi Andrea Del Sarto and My Last Duchess are famous dramatic monologues. Edward Fitzgerald translated the Rubaiyat of the Persian poet Omar Khayyam. poetry seen often in Shakespeare, Milton, Yeats, Auden, Stevens, and Frost. Under the Greenwood Tree, one of the lightest and most appealing of his novels established him as a writer. Other ‘terror novelists’ include William Beckford and Mrs Ann Radcliffe. It is the body of written works of a language or period of culture. The Canterbury Tales became his best known and most acclaimed work. Other important poems of Thomas Gray are Ode on a Favourite Cat, The Bard and The Progress of Poesy. Many critics consider Clarissa as Richardson’s masterpiece. His best known novel is Lord of the Flies. Respect to you from my core of the heart. She left Milton and did not return for two years. 0000003160 00000 n An Irish Seaman Foresees His Death, The Tower, The Green Helmet etc. Indian English Poetry Features - When we talk about Indian English Literature, it is obvious to mention Indian English Poetry, since it is the oldest form. 4. His poems are generous and witty. In 1643, Milton married a woman much younger than himself. His wife, Mary Lamb also wrote some significant essays. Women in Love is another important work. Samuel Johnson (1709–1784), often referred to as Dr Johnson, was an English author who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer. Evolution Old and New, Unconcious Memory, Essays on Life, Art and Science, The Way of All Flesh etc. 0000001159 00000 n Joyce’s mastery of language, his integrity, brilliance, and power is noticeable in his novel titled Finnefan’s Wake. At the present day only four cycles exist (except in the most fragmentary condition), and these, though they furnish an interesting commentary on the times, add very little to our literature. Don Juan ranks as one of the greatest of satirical poems. W.H.”. Rudyard Kipling was born in Bombay but soon moved to Lahore. There is often no clear-cut delineation between religious and non-religious poetry or sometimes even between poetry and prose. Locates seventeenth-century English literature in its social and cultural contexts. Widsith, Genesis A, Genesis B, Exodus, The Wanderer, The Seafarer, Wife’s Lament, Husband’s Message, Christ and Satan, Daniel, Andreas, Guthlac, The Dream of the Rood, The Battle of Maldon etc. 1.The Early Comedies: in these immature plays the plots are not original. Matthew Arnold (1822-1888) was an English poet and cultural critic who worked as an inspector of schools. 20th Century English Poetry Development. In 1387, he began his most famous work, ‘The Canterbury Tales’, in which a diverse group of people recount stories to pass the time on a pilgrimage to Canterbury. The greatest literary figure of English, William Shakespeare was born at Stratford-on-Avon on April 26, 1564. George Orwell became a figure of outstanding importance because of Animal Farm. However, polygamy was prohibited under the rule of the Catholic Church. The character Pamela is a poor and virtuous woman who marries a wicked man and afterwards reforms her husband. Though the poem Beowulf is little interesting to contemporary readers, it is a very important poem in the Old English period because it gives an interesting picture of the life and practices of old days. John Bunyan’s greatest allegory, The Pilgrim’s Progress, The Holy War. THE IMPORTANT PERIODS IN THE HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE •The old English [450AD -1066AD] •The Middle English [1066AD-1500AD] •The Renaissance period[1500-1600] •The Elizabethan period[1558-1603] •The Jacobean period[1603-1625] •The Caroline period[1625-1649] •The Puritan period[1649 … The Vanity of Human Wishes is a longish poem by him. After leaving university, he studied at home. Tobias Smollett wrote a ‘picaresque novel’ titled The Adventures of Roderick Random. A SHORT HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE 2. The largely autobiographical and extremely powerful novel was Sons and Lovers. He was too haste in writing novels and this led to the careless, imperfect stories. E.M Forster portrayed the Indian scene in all its magic and all its wretchedness. %%EOF 0000002186 00000 n Science, Tech, Math Science Math Social Sciences Computer Science Animals & Nature Humanities History & Culture Visual Arts Literature English Geography Philosophy Issues Languages English as a Second Language Spanish French … He was very unconventional in writing technique. It was set in the rural area he was soon to make famous as Wessex. It studies with great insight the relationship between a son and mother. The White Peacock is his earliest novel. MIDDLE ENGLISH LITERATURE Middle English was used from about 1100 to about 1500. Joseph Addison contributed in these periodicals and wrote columns. He defined poetry as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings and emotions”. PB Shelley (1792-1822) was a revolutionary figure of Romantic period. The Roman Plays: Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, Coriolanus etc. are full of vitality. are his other major works. Cambridge Core - English Literature: General Interest - The Cambridge History of English Poetry - edited by Michael O'Neill Lecturer in English PSC Solved Question Paper, Rupturing the Episteme: A Sartrean Interpretation of Protagonists in Mahasweta Devi’s Draupadi, The Hunt and Behind the Bodice, Feminist Novels and Novelists | Literary Theory and Criticism, Cleanth Brooks' Concept of Language of Paradox, Analysis of T.S. L’Allegro(the happy man and Il Penseroso (the sad man) two long narrative poems. His speech On American Taxation is very famous. The third period – the time after Shakespeare’s death and up to 1640 (the forties of the 17th century), it was the time of declining the English Renaissance literature. The Restoration of Charles II (1660) brought about a revolution in English literature. In 1357 he became a public servant to Countess Elizabeth of Ulster and continued in that capacity with the British court throughout his lifetime. They contain many comic situations. The best known of the Moralities is “Everyman,” which has recently been revived in England and America. As stated above, Rabindranath Tagore wrote in Bengali and English and was responsible for the translations of his own work into English. 0000005147 00000 n The verse has nine lines and the rhyme plan is ababbcbcc. England 18th-century precursors. In addition, the English Literary Renaissance consists of four subsets: The Elizabethan Age, the Jacobean Age, the Caroline Age, and the Commonwealth Period (which is also known as the Puritan Interregnum). The sentences are long and complicated. They satirize or denounce abuses of Church and State, and introduce living personages thinly disguised as allegories; so that the stage first becomes a power in shaping events and correcting abuses. The story of Lamia is taken from Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy. Shakespeare’s two long poems, Venus and Adonis, The Rape of Lucrece are notable. Burmese Days and The Road to Wigan Pier are other works. His ReligioMedici is a curious mixture of religious faith and scientific skepticism. 3. Prometheus Unbound is a combination of the lyric and the drama. The Mayor of Casterbridge also deals with the theme of Man versus Destiny. are some of his famous plays. Jane Austen’s plots are skillfully constructed. found an echo on the hearts of many of his readers. He is one of the most difficult of modern poets. Christopher Marlow was the greatest of pre-Shakespearean dramatist. William Makepeace Thackeray was born in Calcutta and sent to England for education. Social conventions and social weaknesses were treated again in Pygmalion, a witty and highly entertaining study of the class distinction. Of this type are The Comedy of Errors, Love’s Labour’s Lost, and The Two Gentlemen of Verona. He is famous for his Grammar, Homilies and Lives of the Saints. Menu. His dramatic masterpiece is All for Love. Sir Thomas Wyatt introduced the Sonnet in England whereas Surrey wrote the first blank verse in English. Wessex Poems, Winter Words, and Collected Poems are his major poetry works. i���ʪ�Ϯn���/0)�W��k��6����@�/���G�<8���Sڞ1�\��XI�8h�X�::H����(/#z#����Bs�t���B�gd��;�@�"��� John Dryden is now remembered for his greatest mock-heroic poem, Mac Flecknoe. The poem is built round the symbols of drought and flood, representing death and rebirth. They were fond of heroic themes. The period is a long one and it is generally considered that Old English was spoken from about A.D. 600 to about 1100. His works consisted of translations, essays, and biographies. Biographia Literaria is his most valuable prose work. Edgar Allan Poe was a master of Mystery stories. Tess of the D’Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure aroused the hostility of conventional readers due to their frank handling of sex and religion. During this time, medieval tradition was blended with Renaissance optimism. 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