Feminist theories first emerged as early as 1794 in publications such as A Vindication of the Rights of Woman by Mary Wollstonecraft, "The Changing Woman", " Ain't I a Woman ", "Speech after Arrest for Illegal Voting", and so on. Janet Bergstrom's article “Enunciation and Sexual Difference” (1979) uses Sigmund Freud's ideas of bisexual responses, arguing that women are capable of identifying with male characters and men with women characters, either successively or simultaneously. The historic link becomes most apparent in the inclusion of Laura Mulvey's article ‘Unmasking the gaze: feminist film theory, history, and film studies’ (p. 17), which, as Callahan rightly … Dodson expressed that the previous waves of feminist were banal and anti-sexual, which is why she has chosen to look at a new stance of feminism, fourth wave feminism. The relationship of feminist film theory to feminist media and cultural studies is outlined, as is the relationship between developments in feminist film theory and feminist film making. Or what about Nicola Peltz in Transformers: Age of Extinction(2014), who is also objectified with minimal clothing and worms-eye camera angles, letting audiences see a lot of skin, indefinitely more than a male actor would reveal in this franchise. It also examined how the process of cinematic production affects how women are represented and reinforces sexism. Some theorists have noted that in advertising, objectification and sexualised portrayals of the female body can be found even in situations where sex or representations of sex have nothing to do with the product being advertised. Rich's essay In the Name of Feminist Film Criticism claims that films by women often receive praise for certain elements, while feminist undertones are ignored. Whilst the Male Gaze can be applied to many obvious films such as Transformers, there are some films that people might not even consider as sexist and misogynistic, such as the movies that feature everyone’s beloved Disney princesses: Beauty and the Beast,Aladdin, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella et cetera. While Lola Young argues that filmmakers of all races fail to break away from the use to tired stereotypes when depicting black women. Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and women's studies in the 1960s and 1970s. Mulvey believes that women are in fact “the bearer of meaning and not the maker of meaning,” which suggests that women are not placed in a role where they can take control of a scene, instead they are simply put there to be observed from an objectified point of view. While Laura Mulvey's paper has a particular place in the feminist film theory, it is important to note that her ideas regarding ways of watching the cinema (from the voyeuristic element to the feelings of identification) are important to some feminist film theorists in terms of defining spectatorship from the psychoanalytical viewpoint. The female gaze is a feminist film theoretical term representing the gaze of the female viewer. An introduction to IB Film feminst film theory of the 1970s. I identify feminist film theory as a discourse; that is, a discursive formation made up from a series of statements within which, and by which, debates related to gendered representation, female subjectivity and spectatorship can be known. In reaction to this article, many women filmmakers integrated "alternative forms and experimental techniques" to "encourage audiences to critique the seemingly transparent images on the screen and to question the manipulative techniques of filming and editing". [12] Her concept, from her book, The Matrixial Gaze,[13] has established a feminine gaze and has articulated its differences from the phallic gaze and its relation to feminine as well as maternal specificities and potentialities of "coemergence", offering a critique of Sigmund Freud's and Jacques Lacan's psychoanalysis, is extensively used in analysis of films,[14][15] by female directors, like Chantal Akerman,[16] as well as by male directors, like Pedro Almodovar. Its dominant approach, exemplifed by such journals as Screen and Camera Obscura, involves a theoretical combination of semiotics, Althusserian Marxism, and Lacanian psychoanalysis. Mulvey calls for an eradication of female sexual objectivity, aligning herself with second-wave feminism. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller: 2009, 128 p. (German), This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 14:59. Additionally, feminist critiques also examine common stereotypes depicted in film, the extent to which the women were shown as active or passive, and the amount of screen time given to women. Other theorists who wrote about feminist film theory and race include bell hooks and Michele Wallace. Jasmine, the Disney princess in Aladdin for example, features a small, tight crop top revealing her chest and stomach, and her waist is almost the same width as her neck, therefore enforcing unrealistic goals for what little girls want to look and aspire to be like. The only way to do so, Mulvey argues, is by destroying the element of voyeurism and "the invisible guest". the “Hollywood” film industry, where most films are directed, produced and/or written by men. Uninvited: Classical Hollywood Cinema and Lesbian Representability by Patricia White. 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Mulvey states that “the gender power asymmetry is a controlling force in cinema and constructed for the pleasure of the male viewer, which is deeply rooted in patriarchal ideologies and discourses.” This means that the male viewer is the target audience, therefore their needs are met first and that this problem stems from an old fashioned, male-driven society. Its fun to imagine yourself into fictional worlds, and stories can often have deep personal meanings in our … Feminist film theory however is often universalizing, and it makes use of complex language and alienating categories which deny women's experiences as active spectators enjoying films or reading them critically. Although Mulvey‘s theory has helped identify issues with gender in film, why do we still have the same issues decades later? Partially this is because people tend to incorporate the things they like into their own identities. 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The inference is that she includes female spectators in that, identifying with the male observer rather than the female object of the gaze. They believe that they are giving the public what they want, when that isn’t necessarily true. Unfortunately, because Disney know people will pay to see this predictable and outdated narrative, they retell the same story over and over for profit, and with the company being worth a total of 74.9 billion US dollars, why would they stop? Feminist Film Theory first came to light in the 1960s and ’70s. Feminism, a belief in the political, economic and cultural equality of women, has roots in the earliest eras of human civilization. Examples Of Film Criticism In Film 1003 Words | 5 Pages. [30] A new version of the gaze was offered in the early 1990s by Bracha Ettinger, who proposed the notion of the "matrixial gaze". Although largely originating in the West, feminism is manifested worldwide and is represented by various institutions committed to activity on behalf of women’s rights and interests. From the feminist perspective, this theory can be viewed in three ways: How men look at women, how women look at themselves and finally, how women look at other women. She argues for a removal of the voyeurism encoded into film by creating distance between the male spectator and the female character. Marxist Theory on Films is one of the most archaic frame of cinematic hypothesis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999, 270 pp., $39.95 hardcover, $17.95 paper. Which films do you think Laura Mulvey’s theory can be applied to? Rachael is also a poet, published short story author and is currently working with Rollem Productions on a new concept for a television show. This inequality enforces the ancient and outdated idea of “men do the looking, and women are to be looked at.”. I don’t think this is a bad thing – I do it too. List of select feminist film theorists and critics. Why does this conglomerate deem it necessary to sexualise their characters? The development of the feminist film theory was mainly because of the second wave feminism and the women’s studies, which occurred in the 1960s and the 1970s. [11] Texts: Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Every female Disney protagonist seems to follow a specific template, continuously made to be extremely thin and put dresses, and with the majority of these characters being white women, it can also make children question the worth and societal view of their race. Although it often gets reduced to key theoretical—primarily psychoanalytic—analyses of spectatorship from the 1970s and 1980s, it has always been and continues to be a dynamic area with many objects of focus and diverse methodological practices. Prior to Mulvey, film theorists such as Jean-Louis Baudry and Christian Metz used psychoanalytic ideas in their theoretical accounts of cinema. However, as the scholar Elizabeth Wright pointed out, “none of these French feminists align themselves with the … The 1990s brought the digital revolution. A key idea of feminist film theory, the concept of the male gaze was introduced by scholar and filmmaker Laura Mulvey in her now famous 1975 essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. The Auteur theory argues that a film is a reflection of the director’s artistic vision; so, a movie directed by a given filmmaker will have recognizable, recurring themes and visual queues that inform the audience who the director is (think a Hitchcock or Tarantino film) and shows a consistent artistic … For Mulvey, it is the presence of the female that defines the patriarchal order of society as well as the male psychology of thought. View Feminist film theory.pdf from ENG 302 at University of the Fraser Valley. [21], As of recent years many believe feminist film theory to be a fading area of feminism with the massive amount of coverage currently around media studies and theory. Don’t feel like reading and would prefer to listen, instead? Rachael Sampson is a screenwriter and critic studying at the…. Feminist film theory, such as Marjorie Rosen's Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies, and the American Dream (1973) and Molly Haskell’s From Reverence to Rape: The Treatment of Women in Movies (1974) analyze the ways in which women are portrayed in film, and how this relates to a broader historical context. April 2016 DOI: 10.1002/9781118663219.wbegss148 CITATIONS 11 READS 12,390 1 author: Some o f the authors of this public ation are also w orking on these r elated projects: Crafting Wearables: on Wearable Technolog y in Fashion Vie w project Book: And The Mirr or Cracked. [20][21] Jane Gaines's Women's Film Pioneer Project (WFPP), a database of women who worked in the silent-era film industry, has been cited as a major achievement in recognizing pioneering women in the field of silent and non-silent film by scholars such as Rachel Schaff. Not only is the Male Gaze theory relevant to cinema, but it also correlates with every-day life. Overall, it is clear that Mulvey‘s theory can be applied to a vast amount of films, for example Spring Breakers(2012), the Lara Croftmovies (2001-2003), The Avengers(2012) and some less obvious movies, such as Aladdin and Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937). "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema" was composed during the period of second-wave feminism, which was concerned with achieving equality for women in the workplace, and with exploring the psychological implications of sexual stereotypes. Donna Haraway's cyborg feminism (1985) has perhaps been the most successful concept for drawing attention to technology as an integral part of feminism, and her work has been used to include a concern for technology in feminist theory (see e.g., Alaimo and Hekman, 2008). Partially this is because people tend to incorporate the things they like into their own identities. Increased focus has been given to, "disparate feminisms, nationalisms, and media in various locations and across class, racial, and ethnic groups throughout the world". Mulvey has shone a light on the old-fashioned and repetitive style of cinema we see every day, and her ideologies have helped create a more modern and truthful version of cinema as we now have more realistic portrayals of women than ever before. Mulvey is predominantly known for her theory regarding sexual objectification on women in the media, more commonly known as The Male Gaze” theory. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. [4], Mulvey proposes in her notes to the Criterion Collection DVD of Michael Powell's controversial film, Peeping Tom (a film about a homicidal voyeur who films the deaths of his victims), that the cinema spectator's own voyeurism is made shockingly obvious and even more shockingly, the spectator identifies with the perverted protagonist. Feminist Film Theory 101: Carol J. Clover’s “The Final Girl” Skip to entry content As it’s Halloween this month, it only seems apporiate for this month’s “Feminist Film Theory 101” to focus on Carol J.Clover’s “ Men, Women, and Chain Saws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film .” and the “Final Girl”. For further reading check out Laura Mulvey's essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. The theory focused on is the exploration of feminist theory developed by Mary Wollstonecraft in the 1790’s. Feminist film theory. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and the development of women's studies in the 1960s and '70s. "The Changing Woman" is a Navajo Myth that gave credit to a woman who, in the end, populated the world. The field of feminist film history is usually understood as having emerged from a general dissatisfaction with the feminist film theory of the 1970s. Its aim is to adequately represent female subjectivity and female desire on the silver screen. In the USA, the theory was based on sociological theory, with a focus on the function of female characters within the narratives/genres of films. Initial attempts in the United States in the early 1970s were generally based on sociological theory and focused on the function of women characters in … Rest in Peace, Agnes Varda. Considering the way that films are put together, many feminist film critics have pointed to what they argue is the "male gaze" that predominates classical Hollywood filmmaking. What kind of message does this transmit? So then, feminist film theory becomes a reason to hate and disavow movies if you’re a feminist. Weinstein Feminist Theory 1494 Words | 6 Pages. Carol Clover, in her popular and influential book, Men, Women, and Chainsaws: Gender in the Modern Horror Film (Princeton University Press, 1992), argues that young male viewers of the Horror Genre (young males being the primary demographic) are quite prepared to identify with the female-in-jeopardy, a key component of the horror narrative, and to identify on an unexpectedly profound level. Another way Mulvey‘s critical theory can be applied to Disney princesses is through the plot and storyline. “Introduction: Recent Approaches to Film Feminisms.”, Johnston, Claire. Its aim is to adequately represent female subjectivity and female desire on the silver screen. Feminist film theory mostly began in two places. Feminist film theory by Sajid Imran Submission date: 09-Nov-2020 06:34PM (UTC+0500) Submission ID: 1440767041 File name: The first is the perspective of the male character and how he perceives the female character. Feminist film theory has emerged in the past 20 years to become a large and flourishing field. They begin to question their self-worth. New York: New York University Press, 1999, 320 pp., $65.00 hardcover, $22.50 paper. [28], Coming from a black feminist perspective, American scholar, Bell Hooks, put forth the notion of the “oppositional gaze,” encouraging black women not to accept stereotypical representations in film, but rather actively critique them. This video provides an essential overview for A-Level Sociology students of the theory of Feminism. I don’t think this is a bad thing – I do it too. This unoriginal and predictable character archetype did not stop at the first few films either, as Bay continued to cast limited women in his films, and all the women included in the franchise are deemed stereotypically attractive, as their careers in acting are secondary to their modelling careers. Learn feminist film theory with free interactive flashcards. Karen Hollinger provides an accessible overview of women’s representation and involvement in film, complemented by analyses of key texts that illustrate major topics in the field. Research traditions include socio … [8], Beginning in the early 1980s feminist film theory began to look at film through a more intersectional lens. With the advancements in film throughout the years feminist film theory has developed and changed to analyse the current ways of film and also go back to analyse films past. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and women's studies in the 1960s and 1970s. Auteur Theory is a way of looking at films that state that the director is the “author” of a film. For example, the films Spy(2015) and The Hunger Gamesfranchise (2012-present) allow audiences to have a refreshing look at women in strong and powerful positions without a man by their side, thus enforcing the important message that women do not have to be put in a box and objectified, they can play a variety of different, versatile roles and they can be considered through the eyes of society in a way that doesn’t patronize and sexualise them via the Male Gaze. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. feminist film theory -andthat image has often been cited, rightly, by feminists, as one of sadism and misogyny. Feminist Film Studies is a readable, yet comprehensive textbook for introductory classes in feminist film theory and criticism. Budd Boetticher summarizes the view: Laura Mulvey expands on this conception to argue that in cinema, women are typically depicted in a passive role that provides visual pleasure through scopophilia,[23]:30 and identification with the on-screen male actor. From Tarantino to Welles. Laura Mulvey, in response to these and other criticisms, revisited the topic in "Afterthoughts on 'Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema' inspired by Duel in the Sun" (1981). Famous feminist film theorist, Laura Murvey argued for the eradication of female sexual objectivity- that in order for women to be equally represented in the workplace, women must be portrayed as men are: lacking sexual objectification. With the advancements in film throughout the years feminist film theory has developed and changed to analyse the current ways of film and also go … With this, it’s no doubt that these men have a sense of power over everything, since they are in charge. The development of feminist film theory was influenced by second wave feminism and the development of women's studies within the academy. Includes readings from Laura Mulvey, Jacqueline Rose, Mary Ann Doane, Tania Modleski, Annette Kuhn, Jackie Stacey, Elizabeth Cowey, Linda Williams, bell hooks, Teresa de Lauretis. [25], Claire Johnston put forth the idea that women's cinema can function as "counter cinema." It is reasonable to begin this part by giving a few definitions of … Leave your thoughts and comments to the right! One film which stands out when considering this theory is Michael Bay‘s Transformers franchise. Feminist scholars began taking cues from the new theories arising from these movements to analyzing film. This can be applied to anything. For further reading check out Laura Mulvey's essay, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema. Learn more about feminism. While popular feminist criticism is not in the business of providing in-depth readings … The film journal Jump Cut published a special issue about titled "Lesbians and Film" in 1981 which examined the lack of lesbian identities in film. Being one of the most notable film theorists in the world, her ideas and clear proof of misogyny in film opened up the eyes of many, and in 1975, something that people simply accepted was finally questioned. In addressing the heterosexual female spectator, she revised her stance to argue that women can take two possible roles in relation to film: a masochistic identification with the female object of desire that is ultimately self-defeating, or a transgender identification with men as the active viewers of the text. So, Mulvey argues, is famous for her essay on Visual Pleasure and Cinema., psychoanalysis and feminism New theories arising from these movements to analyzing film Marxism... 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