The Mexican-American War was one of the most significant events that pushed the nation closer to the brink of civil war. Die südliche Hälfte schloss sich der Sezession an. As a result, a secession convention was held at Mesilla, New Mexico in March 1861, where citizens voted to join the Confederacy and formed militia companies to defend themselves. As the main route to California, the New Mexico Territory was disputed territory during the American Civil War, resulting in settlers in the region carved out by the Gadsden Purchase willingly joining the Confederate States of America, while much of the rest of the present day state of New Mexico remained loyal to the Union. Foreseeing the oncoming attack, Lynde destroyed the ammunition and supplies and the fort and retreated northeast towards Fort Stanton, some 150 miles to the northeast. However, when the Union found out that the Texans were coming into the territory, they reinforced the fort. Planning to attack the Union force at Fort Fillmore the next day, they were thwarted by a Confederate deserter who informed the Fort Fillmore’s commander, Major Isaac Lynde. [16], As the main route to California, the New Mexico Territory was disputed territory during the American Civil War, resulting in settlers in the region carved out by the Gadsden Purchase willingly joining the Confederate States of America, while much of the rest of the present day state of New Mexico remained loyal to the Union. For all purposes herein specified, and until otherwise decreed or provided, the Territory of Arizona shall comprise all that portion of New Mexico lying south of the thirty-fourth parallel of north latitude. Later a similar proposal was defeated in the Senate. Prior to the Civil War, residents in the southern part of New Mexico Territory had long complained that the territorial government in Santa Fe was too far away to properly address their concerns. Tag: New Mexico Civil War Book Review: Valverde. Carleton's troops later fought the Battle of Apache Pass after being ambushed by Cochise and Mangas Coloradas. In February 1858, the New Mexico territorial legislature adopted a resolution in favor of the creation of the Arizona territory, but with a north-south border along the 109th meridian, with the additional stipulation that all the Indians of New Mexico would be removed to northern Arizona. It opened up an additional theater in the American Civil War. At sunset on July 26th, Baylor ordered his artillery and more cavalry to reinforce him, while the rest of his command moved into position to attack the fort the next day. Both Confederate and Union governments claimed ownership and territorial rights over it. On August 1, 1861, Baylor declared the establishment of the Confederate Arizona Territory, installed himself as the new territory’s military governor, made Mesilla the capitol, and declared martial law. [1], After the expansion of the New Mexico Territory in 1853 by the Gadsden Purchase, proposals for a division of the territory and the organization of a separate Territory of Arizona in the southern half of the territory were advanced as early as 1856. After three Union enlisted men died and two officers and four other men were wounded, Lynde ordered a return to the fort. In 1861 the Confederacy claimed the southern tract as its own Arizona Territory and waged the ambitious New Mexico Campaign in an attempt to control the American Southwest and open up access to Union California. Media in category "People of New Mexico in the American Civil War" The following 7 files are in this category, out of 7 total. A territorial secession convention was held at Mesilla on March 16, 1861 that adopted an ordinance of secession, and called on the citizens in western Arizona to "join us in this movement". The plan called for an invasion along the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, seizing Colorado Territory, which was in the height of a gold rush, as well as Fort Laramie, Wyoming, which was the most important garrison along the Oregon Trail. Arizona Civil War New Mexico.png 422 × 359; 24 KB He also planned to recruit new soldiers along the way, certain that there was much Confederate sentiment and cooperation in the sparsely defended deserts. Confederate troops withdrew after the Battle of Glorieta Pass, because a detachment of the 1st Colorado Infantry under Major John M. Chivington had burned their supply train. Required fields are marked *. ", Baylor's subsequent dismantling of the existing Union forts in the territory left the white settlers at the mercy of the Apache, who quickly gained control of the area and forced many of the white settlers to seek refuge in Tucson. Mangas Coloradas and Cochise led a series of raids on white civilians that left dozens dead and spread fear and terror across the territory. The New Mexico Campaign was a military operation of the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War from February to April 1862 in which Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley invaded the northern New Mexico Territory in an attempt to gain control of the Southwest, including the gold fields of Colorado and the ports of California. The New Mexico Territory, which included the states of New Mexico, Arizona as well as the southern part of Nevada and later became States in the US played a role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. With Union Troops gone from the southern part of New Mexico Territory as well as Texas, the 2nd Texas Mounted Rifles under Lieutenant Colonel John R. Baylor were sent to occupy the series of forts along the western Texas frontier, as well as advancing into New Mexico to attack the Union forts along the Rio Grande River. On July 24, 1861, 250 troops of the 2nd Texas Mounted Rifles crossed the Rio Grande River into Mesilla, arriving to the cheers of the population. Prior to the Civil War, residents in the southern part of New Mexico Territory had long complained that the territorial government in Santa Fe was too far away to properly address their concerns. This book corrects many misconceptions that may be useful to all interested in the Civil War in New Mexico. The proposal for creation of the territory was controversial in part because of the perception that the New Mexico Territory was under the influence of southern sympathizers who were highly desirous of expanding slavery into the southwest. Valverde is a novel about the Civil War in New Mexico that begins in Texas. In 1861, Federal troops went east, which left white civilians unprotected from Indian attacks. New Mexico war damals noch kein Bundesstaat, sondern lediglich Territorium. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Arizona Territory (Confederate States of America), Provisional Confederate Territory of Arizona, List of New Mexico Territory Civil War units, American Civil War Research Database statistics, Arizona Division, Sons of Confederate Veterans, Sons of Confederate Veterans, Arizona Chapter, National Park Service map of Civil War sites in New Mexico, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/New_Mexico_Territory_in_the_American_Civil_War?oldid=4415501. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Their sense of abandonment was further confirmed at the beginning the Civil War, when regular troops were withdrawn from the area. When the Confederates refused, the Union opened fire with his mountain howitzers and the infantry was ordered to advance. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. The use of a north-south border rather than an east-west one had the effect of denying a de facto ratification of the Confederate Arizona Territory. The first proposal dates from a conference held in Tucson that convened on August 29, 1856. [12], At the start of the Civil War, the territorial governor was Abraham Rencher; although a Democrat from North Carolina, he refused to support secession, and called out the territorial militia to counteract the Confederate invasion of July 1861. Led by Confederate Brigadier General Henry Hopkins Sibley, southern troops invaded northern New Mexico Territory beginning in February, 1862 in an attempt to gain control of the Southwest, as well as the gold fields of Colorado and the ports of California. Hunter's frontiersmen spent most of their time expelling Union supporters and skirmishing with Federal troops, so the order was never enforced. In the Spring of 1861, Sibley, a Louisianan who had just resigned from the U.S. Army, met with Confederate President Jefferson Davis, outlining a strategy to take over the American West. After two months of debate, the legislation passed on January 13, 1862, and the territory was officially created by proclamation of President Jefferson Davis on February 14,[9] with this proclamation: "I, Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederate States of America, do issue this, my proclamation, declaring said "Act to organize the Territory of Arizona" to be in full force and operation, and that I have proceeded to appoint the officers therein provided to be appointed in and for said Territory. Includes bibliography. It is well written through solid research and supporting maps showing the consequences of the South would of won this little-known campaign for the control of the western United States. The conference issued a petition to the U.S. Congress, signed by 256 people, requesting organization of the territory and elected Nathan P. Cooke as the territorial delegate to Congress. Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory was effectively broken after the Battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862. In February 1862, Sibley advanced northward from Fort Thorn up the valley of the Rio Grande, toward the territorial capital … Confederate Invasion of New Mexico, 1862 Map illustrating the Confederate advance into New Mexico in 1861 and 1862, including major battles. However, the people of Arizona remained firm in their support of Baylor, and held another convention on August 28, 1861 in Tucson, ratifying Baylor's proclamation. When the U.S. claimed the New Mexico Territory, after the Mexican-American War, the U.S. set up a string of forts across the Territory to protect travelers and settlers from Indian raids, and to keep an eye out for other possible uprisings. New Mexico Civil War Service Records of Union Soldiers, 1861-1865. Additionally, making matters worse, on March 2 of 1861 the U.S. Government formally revoked a contract with the Butterfield Overland Stagecoach Company which was being used to support delivery of United States mail on the overland route which ran from San Antonio, Texas through El Paso, Texas, Mesilla, Tucson and on to California. The delegates elected Lewis Owings as provisional governor. After the fort was abandoned by the Union garrison, Baylor's force cut off the fleeing Union troops and forced them to surrender. Frazier, pp. Even though the column withstood the Apaches and established Fort Bowie to secure the pass, the Californians and the Apache would continue fighting throughout the War and beyond. Description. The first capital was at Fort Whipple, followed by Prescott, in the northern Union-controlled area. Other leading and trailing events are also included for perspective. Lynde then ordered his cavalry and three companies of the Regiment of Mounted Rifles, to charge the Confederate forces. He called on the citizens to abandon their allegiance to the Union and to join the Confederacy, warning that those "who co-operate with the enemy will be treated accordingly, and must be prepared to share their fate." The Arizona Organic Act passed the Senate in February 1863 without the Tucson-as-capital stipulation, and was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on February 24, the date of the official organization of the U.S. Arizona Territory. The New Mexico Campaign was an endeavor by the Confederacy to invade what was then known as New Mexico Territory. That month he was replaced by Henry Connelly, a native of New Mexico who would serve as governor for the remainder of the war. Sibley’s New Mexico Campaign (February-March 1862). Once again, Granville Oury was re-elected as a congressman to the Confederate States Congress. 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