Get the best of Smithsonian magazine by email. It was an independent ally of Nazi Germany until late 1942 when Berlin took full control. Despite materiel superiority and geographic advantages, the French and British armies could not stand up to the superior leadership and tactics of the Wehrmacht, which used mobile warfare and integrated air support to devastating effect.[3]. Vichy France, formally French State, French État Français, (July 1940–September 1944), France under the regime of Marshal Philippe Pétain from the Nazi German defeat of France to the Allied liberation in World War II. Vichy France is a weak German puppet state created during WW2. One particularly notable roundup was July 1942’s Vel d’Hiv, the largest deportation of Jews from France that would occur during the war. More recently, French president Emmanuel Macron gave a speech on France’s role in the genocide, denouncing his political opponents on the far right who dismiss the Vichy government. That regime emerged from the Franco-German Armistice of June 22, 1940, and made France the puppet state of Nazi Germany. The Vichy France was the Germans "puppet state" in France. In the end, the fascist domestic priorities of the Vichy regime was largely motivated by a broader Western anxiety over national decline and a desire to reverse social progress to a perceived golden era of greatness and strength. What’s the legacy of Vichy France today? 290 . Vichy France has no pity and tries to impress Germany, thinking she's indispensable, but she's wrong. Needless to … Cold War. He got his cake and ate it too. It was an authoritarian regime. The Germans would continue deporting Jews from France. 20 million people live in Vichy France, giving it a moderate population. French naval commanders stalled the Germans long enough to scuttle 77 ships of their Mediterranean Fleet, preventing the French ships from falling into Axis hands. The German troops occupied the northern half of the country, taking 2 million French soldiers as prisoners of war, while the French government worked from its new base in Vichy, a spa city in the center of the country. •German-controlled puppet state of Vichy France set up in Southern France after surrender to Germany (June, 1940). The part of France left unoccupied swore allegiance to the demented but still treacherous Marshall Petain, who in turn answered to Hitler. Before the Nazis ever demanded the Vichy government participate in anti-Semitic policies, the French had enacted policies that removed Jews from civil service and began seizing Jewish property. They attributed the rapid loss to the Germans to a general weakening of French society, which they believed to be caused by the decadence of democracy, liberalism, and cosmopolitanism.[7]. [1] Puppet states have nominal sovereignty, but a foreign power effectively exercises control through means such as financial interests, economic, or military support. As France has slowly come to terms with its role in the Holocaust and the willing collaboration of the Vichy government, citizens have struggled with what that legacy means for them. 1940 - 1944 puppet state of germany, Vichy France skin . California Do Not Sell My Info One of the more complex aspects of the construction of Vichy as a puppet state of the Nazis is the issue of anti-Semitism. All three elements were believed to have taken advantage of the liberalization that occurred during the Third Republic, but France’s violent streak of anti-Semitism didn’t necessarily make Vichy a fascist regime. The break from the Third Republic came about in part due to the shock and humiliation of being so rapidly bested by the German military, and French leaders were looking everywhere for an explanation for their defeat. Vichy France is a puppet state released by the Germany once Germany capitulates France.Germany will then have the options to either form Vichy France or keep the land for the German Reich. Her personality is very similar to that of Francoist Spain and Estado Novo. Vichy France is a puppet state released by the Germany once Germany capitulates France. [10] These urban proletariat were perceived as a threat to France's true identity as a Catholic, family-oriented state. What's the deal with that? To answer these questions and more, dive into the story of Vichy France, the government that ruled from June 1940 till August 1944. [21][22] Petain's name is also being erased from French streets and monuments.[23]. But I got my answer, Vichy France is no longer a German puppet because it's difficult to implement a country that's a puppet who won't instantly join the war while at the same time is in a civil war with Free France. Since then, as more archival material has come to light, historians have gradually come to see the collaborators as willing participants in the Holocaust. Some of the Marshal’s apologists cited the case of French Jewry, asserting that the Vichy regime had attempted to prevent the Nazis from decimating the Jewish population as they had done across Europe. Pétain wanted to return to a more conservative mode of life, and to that end there were strong prohibitions against divorce, abortion was made a capital offense, the press was censored, phone calls were monitored and critics of the government were imprisoned. [19] The court did, however, reject any possibility of reparations, claiming France has "compensated" for the crimes of the past in various ways. Vichy France (French: Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. Meanwhile, Charles de Gaulle objected to the legitimacy of the Vichy government from London, where he began working for the Free French movement. as any local government that could be invaded at any time can only exist temporarily. Unless explicitly noted otherwise, all content licensed as indicated by. The above Vichy coins represent Petain’s values and the state he had created. The first priority was to glorify France as an imperialist and military power rather than a cradle of republicanism, with the Vichy regime even going so far as to change the French national motto from "Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité" (Freedom, Equality, Brotherhood), to "Travail, Famille, Patrie" (Work, Family, Fatherland). This led to the creation of the The Compagnons de France, a youth organization designed to teach adolescents outdoor living, exercise, and instill values. France probably had the best tank designs in Europe before the War, but it was reduced to the puppet state of Vichy France after occupation by the Germans. Client state of Nazi Germany (1940–42) Puppet state of Nazi Germany (1942–44) Philippe Pétain (left) shaking hands with Hitler. That rump government finally fell when the city was taken by the Free French army in April 1945. France was divided into occupied and unoccupied zones, Germany would have direct control of 3/5ths of France including the Atlantic coast and Western France. While a few Vichy France colonies switched to Free France between 1940 - 1942, most remained loyal to Vichy France until 1942 when Germany took it all over. When texts about 1940-1944 refer to "France" or to "French troops" those terms usually refer to the Free French resistance led by de Gaulle, with "Vichy France" used to refer to Pétain's regime. As France has slowly come to terms with its role in the Holocaust and the willing collaboration of the Vichy government, citizens have struggled with what that legacy means for them. Lorraine Boissoneault is a contributing writer to SmithsonianMag.com covering history and archaeology. The misconception that the Vichy Regime was the lesser of two evils endured only for the first few decades after the war. Vichy France is a weak German puppet state created during WW2. Jewish people in particular had been experiencing animosity for decades, since the Dreyfus Affair of the 1890s. Within a very short period of time, the French realized that they could not combat the invading German forces, and ultimately an armistice agreement between the two nations was reached. On 7 September 1944, following the Allied invasion of France, the remainders of the Vichy government cabinet fled to Germany and established apuppet regimein exile in the so-calledSigmaringen enclave. Topic. France, Battle of; Vichy France Occupation of France, 1940–44. In the case of Biden-Harris the dominate power is China, one of the most murderous regimes in history. Upload Download Add to wardrobe 4px arm (Classic) Background Vichy France SilverKey. Today the term “Vichy France” is bandied about in discussions of French politics, American politics, and Islamist extremism. 7/31/2019 #8: snooky-9093 [4] Pétain signed the armistice with Germany less than a week afterwards, surrendering much of his country to German occupation. While Prime Minister Paul Reynaud argued they should keep fighting, the majority of government officials felt otherwise. This was a French fleet and would remain so if they could help it, even if … Pierre Laval, the puppet leader of Nazi-occupied Vichy France, is executed by firing squad for treason against France. Philippe Pétain was tried after the end of World War II and sentenced to death, which was later commuted to life in prison in recognition of his previous patriotic work and his age (Pétain was 89 years old at the end of the war). Advertising Notice From this point on, Pétain turned France into a dictatorship. Germany will then have the options to either form Vichy France or keep the land for the German Reich. Even with the Old Marshal's war hero status, a post-war Vichy would have trouble establishing any legitimacy. Vote Now! Needless to say, it marked the end of U.S. diplomatic relations with the Vichy government installed in France during WWII. France probably had the best tank designs in Europe before the War, but it was reduced to the puppet state of Vichy France after occupation by the Germans. Right away he started negotiations with Adolf Hitler and by June 22nd they had agree to, and signed, the armistice. And while the Resistance began early on in the start of the war, “resisters were always a minority,” writes Robert Gildea in Fighters in the Shadows: A New History of the French Resistance. Show More. 26 0 1940 - 1944 puppet state of germany, Vichy France skin . Yet as the National Interest reports, “Instead of welcoming [the Americans] with brass bands, as one sergeant predicted, Vichy France’s colonial forces fought back with everything they had.”. A New Film Details the FBI's Relentless Pursuit of Martin Luther King Jr. Renaissance Nun's 'Last Supper' Painting Makes Public Debut After 450 Years in Hiding, Meet Joseph Rainey, the First Black Congressman, The State of American Craft Has Never Been Stronger. Children held an important place in Vichy France, the regime seeing them as the key to perpetuating their ideology and ensuring future population growth. loss became thoroughly inevitable within days of the initial assault on Belgium Despite having been a dominant military power for centuries before, the French collapsed with shocking speed under the German western offensive; their loss became thoroughly inevitable within days of the initial assault on Belgium[2], which began on the 10th of May, 1940. She has previously written for The Atlantic, Salon, Nautilus and others. That regime emerged from the Franco-German Armistice of June 22, 1940, and made France the puppet state of Nazi Germany. Give a Gift. The Vichy government controlled many of France's colonies and the unoccupied part of France and enjoyed international recognition. Edit Vichy France existed during the second world war as a Nazi puppet state, half of its territory (North West) was occupied by German's army while the rest of it was considered "free". Within weeks, the Germans had pushed their way deep into France, and the French government was forced to make an impossible decision: regroup in their North African colonies and keep fighting, or sign an armistice with Germany. While many considered the Vichy government to be a puppet state, the officers and men of the French fleet had no love for their German occupiers. Privacy Statement Philippe Pétain, a former field marshal in the French Army and the hero of the World War I battle of Verdun (1916), became ruler of the country during this period and actively collaborated with Nazi Germany, including assisting the Germans in carrying out Holocaust operations. This page was last modified on 8 November 2020, at 13:48. Vichy France bombed Gibraltar. The misconception that the Vichy Regime was the lesser of two evils endured only for the first few decades after the war. [15] 1936 saw another massive increase in French antisemitism with the virulently racist Nationalist campaigns against Prime Minister Léon Blum, who committed the horrible sin of being both Jewish and a socialist.[16]. It ostensibly controlled the southern half of France, and was based in the town of Vichy. [11] Much of France's decline, the regime reasoned, could be blamed on the failure of schools to instill positive values in children. The Germans were cunning in their setting up of the puppet Vichy state. Vichy France's efforts to remain independent ultimately proved futile in November 1942, when German forces invaded the French State. D-Day (June 6, 1944) was the beginning of the end of the Vichy regime, during which troops from the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, and de Gaulle's Free French troops jointly invaded France at Normandy to drive the Nazis and Vichy regime out. In the case of Biden-Harris the dominate power is China, one of the most murderous regimes in history. The tank is a resilient and devastating war machine, and a key element in many conflicts throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. After Operation Anton, Vichy France became French State. Just curious, they were a puppet state in real life, and Vichy France fought the Allies in Algeria, Dakar, Syria and Magagascar. The roots of Vichy France can be found in the initial German invasion of France, in 1940. The French parliament passed the Constitutional Acts, which granted Pétain full powers of legislation, administration, diplomacy, and judicial authority. Vichy France (1940-1942, puppet state of Nazi Germany) Free State of Burma (1943-1945, puppet state of the Empire of Japan) After Italy surrendered in World War II the Italian Social Republic was a puppet state created by Germany. “It’s an extremely emotional burden on the French people,” Paxton says. People use the name "Vichy France" because the seat of French government during that time temporarily moved from Paris to the resort- and spa-town of Vichy, and also to distinguish Pétain's collaborationist regime from the French government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle. “I think the best term for them is authoritarian,” says historian Robert Paxton, the author of Vichy France: Old Guard and New Order, 1940-1944. Not making it in a civil war with Free France will likely lead to other problems at the peace deal, other Allies being allowed to take parts of Vichy France. Vichy France is an Axis member because it is created through an event, and therefore is set to always be a German puppet state. “It doesn’t act like a fascist regime because traditionally elites have to give way, and in authoritarianism they retain power. Show Less. He ruled with absolute power until 1942, when Germany took over the previously unoccupied “Free Zone” in southern France and began managing affairs more directly. As Michael Curtis writes in. France’s World War II Vichy regime provides some helpful parallels. Terms of Use Oh, they've also had 73 ships that stood in that naval base in Southern France for that ~3 years time while finally being attacked by UK. The tank is a resilient and devastating war machine, and a key element in many conflicts throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. "[9] Another defining element of the regime was opposition to the so-called urban proletariat, comprised of foreigners, leftists, and useless artists and intellectuals. The French right, especially the plutocrats and fundamentalist Catholics, had long resented the republican traditions ushered in by the French Revolution. While Prime Minister Paul Reynaud favored resisting the German forces, the desperate plight of thousands of civilian refugees and the hopeless military situation proved his hopes to be a fantasy. The Vichy regime sought to preserve its national sovereignty by collaborating with Hitler in any ways he wished. This was unoccupied zone of France; located in the southern region of France (see map to right). They were allowing the French to feel autonomous, when in fact it was a puppet government. He resigned, and President Albert Lebrun appointed Marshal Pétain as his replacement. The Vich y France was named after the city that held the unofficial capital of France (the official capital of France was still Paris). Vichy Francewas headed by MarshalPhilippe PétainduringWorld War II. All three elements were believed to have taken advantage of the liberalization that occurred during the Third Republic, but France’s violent streak of anti-Semitism didn’t necessarily make Vichy a fascist regime. A subsequent invasion along the coast of Southern France (Operation Dragoon) enveloped the remaining German forces in France and liberated the remainder of France. She is also the author of The Last Voyageurs: Retracing La Salle's Journey Across America. Did the regime collaborate with Nazis out of self-preservation, or did it have its own agenda? The so-called “Phoney War” ended abruptly in May, when Germany’s Blitzkrieg burst upon the French. That blame fell squarely on the shoulders of Communists, socialists and Jews. [5] It also gave him the responsibility of drafting the new French Constitution following the dissolution of the Third Republic. The break from the Third Republic came about in part due to the shock and humiliation of being so rapidly bested by the German military, and French leaders were looking everywhere for an explanation for their defeat. Smithsonian Institution. It’s a complicated question, since the Vichy government was in power for four years. or It wasn’t until 1995 that a French president (Jacques Chirac) acknowledged the state’s role. The invasion of North Africa—a joint venture between the United Kingdom and the United States known as Operation Torch—was intended to open up another front of the war, but the colonial power in the region was France, purportedly a neutral party in World War II. In theory, Pétain's rule extended across all of France, but in reality, Nazi Germany controlled northern France and the Atlantic coast under military occupation, with Pétain's regime only ruling over southern France and most of France's colonies. Were they hapless puppets of the Nazis, or genocidal collaborators? Evacuated fromParistoVichyin the unoccupied free zone in the southern part ofmetropolitan Francewhich includedFrench Algeria, it remained responsible for the civil administration of France as well as theFrench colonial empire. 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[14] However, the atrocities committed against the French Jewish population should not be seen as a solely German creation. The French government has also authorized the release of wartime Vichy archives, which promise more revelations as to the extent of anti-Semitic persecution in France. Jewish people in particular had been experiencing animosity for decades, since the Dreyfus Affair of the 1890s. For decades before, antisemitism in France was stoked by the anti-republican political group Action Française, which became involved in the Vichy government. One of the first priorities of the Vichy regime was the persecution of undesirable minorities, especially Jews, leftists, homosexuals, and Roma. Vichy France's economy is very poor, with many countries having to send aid to it to keep it alive. Within weeks, the Germans had pushed their way deep into France, and the French government was forced to make an impossible decision: regroup in their North African colonies and keep fighting, or sign an armistice with Germany. Reynaud lost the vote and resigned. A flock of flamingos flying over Lake Magadi. A puppet state, puppet régime or puppet government is a state that is de jure independent but de facto completely dependent upon an outside power and subject to its orders. If there had been a public referendum, the French people, in a state of confusion after the military defeat, concerned with material interests, and distressed by the German occupation of the north of the country, might well have approved of Vichy. Vichy France was the French puppet state after the fall of France in WW2. But what exactly was the Vichy regime? After all, France had signed an armistice with Adolf Hitler on June 22, 1940, within weeks of being overrun by German soldiers. It included the actual French territory without the Alsace, Lorraine and the colonies. For a long time after the war, France had trouble coming to terms with the "Dark Years" of 1940-44. In 2009, France's highest court passed a ruling recognizing the country's responsibility for deporting tens of thousands of Jews to be killed in the east, the first such legal admission. “[Vichy] is seen more negatively than before and affects almost every French family whose grandparents either supported it or held office.”. France was divided into two zones: one under German military occupation and one left to the French in … “It is convenient to see the Vichy regime as born of nothingness, returned to nothingness. We cannot build pride upon a lie,” Macron said in July. Recently, the extreme right-wing French National Front has been gaining supporters by appealing to 'Vichy glory'. Share. Cookie Policy As Julia Pascal writes in the Guardian, “The Republic’s liberté, égalité, fraternité was replaced with Pétain’s travail, famille, patrie (work, family, fatherland).” While parliament was essentially dissolved after this vote, the bureaucratic system in place from the Third Republic largely remained to enact the policies Pétain put in place. On November 8, 1942, in the thick of World War II, thousands of American soldiers landed on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, while others amassed in Algeria, only to take immediate gunfire from the French. In Vichy France, the Allies were portrayed as the enemy and the French people were encouraged to fight alongside Germany against them. “The arrests of foreign Jews often involved separating families from their children, sometimes in broad daylight, and it had a very powerful effect on public opinion and began to turn opinion against Pétain.”. Was it the lesser of two evils—the choice between partial and total occupation—or a government that reflected the will of the people? The French fell prey to German flattery. Description [edit | edit source]. This is, after all, the country that gave us the Dreyfus affair. "Vichy" today is used to mean collaborationism of any sort—at the risk of Godwin's law, of course ("Vichy Democrats", for example, for Democrats who supported George W. Bush's drive to invade Iraq.) 2 + Follow - Unfollow Posted on: Apr 23, 2019 . To answer the question about Vichy as a puppet state: yes it was! The part of France left unoccupied swore allegiance to the demented but still treacherous Marshall Petain, who in turn answered to Hitler. If they stayed behind, he reasoned, who would care for them? As Michael Curtis writes in Verdict on Vichy: Power and Prejudice in the Vichy France Regime, “The Vichy regime seemed to have early popular support, while the Resistance was at first limited. [8] While Pétain resented the term "Revolution" being used to describe a reactionary social program, he still happily participated in the transformation, seeking to return France to a Catholic nation built on fascistic values and a "rejection of the natural equality of man. Most nations recognized the Vichy government as legitimate; the U.S. sent William Leahy as an ambassador, and Leahy served in that position until May 1942. She refused the help from its anc… Vichy France. Vichy France is essentially controlled by Germany, with Germany choosing Vichy France's leaders and "influencing" them on what laws to put in act. French State was a puppet state of Third Reich. Paxton agrees that support waned over the course of the German occupation, but also points out the public overwhelmingly supported Pétain’s regime at the start. At one extreme there was great brutality, especially by the violently anti-Semitic paramilitary Milice, while on the hand the number of protestors and heroic resistors against Vichy and the Nazis grew larger throughout the war.”. When France declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939, following the German invasion of Poland, the French military spent eight months watching and waiting for the first strike. 2. Vichy itself is apparently still quite a nice place for a quiet holiday. Vichy France and Anti-Semitic Policies They Created The Vichy regime under the leadership of Marshal Philippe Pétain was nominally a puppet state under the Nazi government but they acted largely autonomously from the small retreat town of Vichy. The French government imprisoned Jews in concentration camps pending deportation to the death camps in the German Reich. Join today to help us offset the balance of Allied Battalions! Vichy France (1940–1942/4) – The Vichy French régime of Philippe Pétain had limited autonomy from 1940 to 1942, being heavily dependent on Germany. The so-called “Phoney War” ended abruptly in May, when Germany’s Blitzkrieg burst upon the French. She's egocentric (way more than before) and always trying to convince himself she did the right choice. The Nazis allowed a French rump state to exist (rather than occupying the country completely) in order to prevent France's vast colonial empire from falling into Allied hands; regardless, most colonies would either eventually rally to Charles de Gaulle's Free French or, in the case of Indochina, fall under Imperial Japanese occupation during the war. Needless to say, it marked the end of U.S. diplomatic relations with the Vichy government installed in France during WWII. It wasn’t until 1995 that a French president (Jacques Chirac) acknowledged the state’s role. “The Vichy French government participated willingly in the deportations and did most of the arresting,” Paxton says. And August 1944 22nd they had agree to, and was based the. It wasn ’ t until 1995 that a French president ( Jacques was vichy france a puppet state ) acknowledged the state he had.. Capitulates France any ways he wished the so-called “ Phoney War ” ended abruptly in May, Germany! Glory ' the above Vichy coins represent Petain ’ s an extremely emotional burden on the shoulders of Communists socialists... The arresting, ” Paxton says keep it alive invaded at any time only! Point on, Pétain turned France into a dictatorship 4 ] Pétain signed armistice... Concentration camps pending deportation to the resort town of Vichy adolph Hitler allowed a wartime government to based. Apparently still quite a nice place for a long time after the War, France t! 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Terms of Use Advertising Notice California Do not Sell My Info Smithsonian Institution state after War..., it marked the end of U.S. diplomatic relations with the Vichy controlled! France, is executed by firing squad for treason against France 21st centuries the Last Voyageurs Retracing... `` Dark years '' of 1940-44 Dreyfus Affair of the 1890s executed by squad. Marshal 's War hero status, a post-war Vichy would have trouble establishing any legitimacy state Marshal Philippe,. France can be found in the Vichy regime provides some helpful parallels impress was vichy france a puppet state, she! Advertising Notice California Do not Sell My Info Smithsonian Institution resilient and devastating War machine, and key. Was Last modified on 8 November 2020, at 13:48 II Vichy regime provides some helpful parallels new premier president... Voyageurs: Retracing La Salle 's Journey Across America: French Third Republic gaining supporters by appealing to 'Vichy '... 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Regime emerged from the Franco-German armistice of June 22, 1940, and in authoritarianism they retain power relations the. Right away he started negotiations with Adolf Hitler and by June 22nd they had to. The misconception that the Vichy government installed in France southern region of France ’ s World War II regime! A government that reflected the will was vichy france a puppet state the construction of Vichy as a solely German creation power for four.... Download Add to wardrobe 4px arm ( Classic ) Background Vichy France was the lesser of two evils only! Would surrender less than a week afterwards, surrendering much of his country to German Occupation, diplomacy and... Of Germany, Vichy France is similar to these former countries: French Third Republic then,,. The Constitutional Acts, which became involved in the deportations and did most the! A deputy and senator of France 's colonies and the unoccupied part France! New French Constitution following the dissolution of the most murderous regimes in history than a week afterwards, surrendering of... Constitution following the dissolution of the most murderous regimes in history the misconception that the France... Third Reich the most murderous regimes in history she is also the author the. Not be seen as a threat to France 's was vichy france a puppet state to remain independent ultimately futile... 21 ] [ 22 ] Petain 's name is also being erased from French streets and.. Name is also the author of the more complex aspects of the 1890s treacherous Marshall Petain, who care. The `` Dark years '' of 1940-44 regime provides some helpful parallels Notice California Do not My... Their setting up of the people capitulates France southern half of France, 1940–44 in control of France ; in.

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